5 Minute Binary Options

vfxAlert - Signals for binary options

vfxAlert - Signals for binary options
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Signals for binary options
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submitted by vfxAlert3 to u/vfxAlert3 [link] [comments]

ResultsFileName = 0×0 empty char array Why? Where are my results?

Edit: Turns out I was missing a needed toolbox.
Hello,
I am not getting any errors and I do not understand why I am not getting any output. I am trying to batch process a large number of ecg signals. Below is my code and the two relevant functions. Any help greatly appreciated. I am very new.
d = importSections("Dx_sections.csv"); % set the number of recordings n = height(d); % settings HRVparams = InitializeHRVparams('test_physionet') for ii = 1:n % Import waveform (ECG) [record, signals] = read_edf(strcat(d.PID(ii), '/baseline.edf')); myecg = record.ECG; Ann = []; [HRVout, ResultsFileName] = Main_HRV_Analysis(myecg,'','ECGWaveform',HRVparams) end function [HRVout, ResultsFileName ] = Main_HRV_Analysis(InputSig,t,InputFormat,HRVparams,subID,ann,sqi,varargin) % ====== HRV Toolbox for PhysioNet Cardiovascular Signal Toolbox ========= % % Main_HRV_Analysis(InputSig,t,InputFormat,HRVparams,subID,ann,sqi,varargin) % OVERVIEW: % % INPUT: % InputSig - Vector containing RR intervals data (in seconds) % or ECG/PPG waveform % t - Time indices of the rr interval data (seconds) or % leave empty for ECG/PPG input % InputFormat - String that specifiy if the input vector is: % 'RRIntervals' for RR interval data % 'ECGWaveform' for ECG waveform % 'PPGWaveform' for PPG signal % HRVparams - struct of settings for hrv_toolbox analysis that can % be obtained using InitializeHRVparams.m function % HRVparams = InitializeHRVparams(); % % % OPTIONAL INPUTS: % subID - (optional) string to identify current subject % ann - (optional) annotations of the RR data at each point % indicating the type of the beat % sqi - (optional) Signal Quality Index; Requires a % matrix with at least two columns. Column 1 % should be timestamps of each sqi measure, and % Column 2 should be SQI on a scale from 0 to 1. % Use InputSig, Type pairs for additional signals such as ABP % or PPG signal. The input signal must be a vector containing % signal waveform and the Type: 'ABP' and\or 'PPG'. % % OUTPUS: % results - HRV time and frequency domain metrics as well % as AC and DC, SDANN and SDNNi % ResultsFileName - Name of the file containing the results % % NOTE: before running this script review and modifiy the parameters % in "initialize_HRVparams.m" file accordingly with the specific % of the new project (see the readme.txt file for further details) % EXAMPLES % - rr interval input % Main_HRV_Analysis(RR,t,'RRIntervals',HRVparams) % - ECG wavefrom input % Main_HRV_Analysis(ECGsig,t,'ECGWavefrom',HRVparams,'101') % - ECG waveform and also ABP and PPG waveforms % Main_HRV_Analysis(ECGsig,t,'ECGWaveform',HRVparams,[],[],[], abpSig, % 'ABP', ppgSig, 'PPG') % % DEPENDENCIES & LIBRARIES: % HRV Toolbox for PhysioNet Cardiovascular Signal Toolbox % https://github.com/cliffordlab/PhysioNet-Cardiovascular-Signal-Toolbox % % REFERENCE: % Vest et al. "An Open Source Benchmarked HRV Toolbox for Cardiovascular % Waveform and Interval Analysis" Physiological Measurement (In Press), 2018. % % REPO: % https://github.com/cliffordlab/PhysioNet-Cardiovascular-Signal-Toolbox % ORIGINAL SOURCE AND AUTHORS: % This script written by Giulia Da Poian % Dependent scripts written by various authors % (see functions for details) % COPYRIGHT (C) 2018 % LICENSE: % This software is offered freely and without warranty under % the GNU (v3 or later) public license. See license file for % more information %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% if nargin < 4 error('Wrong number of input arguments') end if nargin < 5 subID = '0000'; end if nargin < 6 ann = []; end if nargin < 7 sqi = []; end if length(varargin) == 1 || length(varargin) == 3 error('Incomplete Signal-Type pair') elseif length(varargin) == 2 extraSigType = varargin(2); extraSig = varargin{1}; elseif length(varargin) == 4 extraSigType = [varargin(2) varargin(4)]; extraSig = [varargin{1} varargin{3}]; end if isa(subID,'cell'); subID = string(subID); end % Control on signal length if (strcmp(InputFormat, 'ECGWaveform') && length(InputSig)/HRVparams.Fs< HRVparams.windowlength) ... || (strcmp(InputFormat, 'PPGWaveform') && length(InputSig)/HRVparams.Fs 300 s VLF = [0.0033 .04]; % Requires at least 300 s window LF = [.04 .15]; % Requires at least 25 s window HF = [0.15 0.4]; % Requires at least 7 s window HRVparams.freq.limits = [ULF; VLF; LF; HF]; HRVparams.freq.zero_mean = 1; % Default: 1, Option for subtracting the mean from the input data HRVparams.freq.method = 'lomb'; % Default: 'lomb' % Options: 'lomb', 'burg', 'fft', 'welch' HRVparams.freq.plot_on = 0; % The following settings are for debugging spectral analysis methods HRVparams.freq.debug_sine = 0; % Default: 0, Adds sine wave to tachogram for debugging HRVparams.freq.debug_freq = 0.15; % Default: 0.15 HRVparams.freq.debug_weight = .03; % Default: 0.03 % Lomb: HRVparams.freq.normalize_lomb = 0; % Default: 0 % 1 = Normalizes Lomb Periodogram, % 0 = Doesn't normalize % Burg: (not recommended) HRVparams.freq.burg_poles = 15; % Default: 15, Number of coefficients % for spectral estimation using the Burg % method (not recommended) % The following settings are only used when the user specifies spectral % estimation methods that use resampling : 'welch','fft', 'burg' HRVparams.freq.resampling_freq = 7; % Default: 7, Hz HRVparams.freq.resample_interp_method = 'cub'; % Default: 'cub' % 'cub' = cublic spline method % 'lin' = linear spline method HRVparams.freq.resampled_burg_poles = 100; % Default: 100 %% 11. SDANN and SDNNI Analysis Settings HRVparams.sd.on = 1; % Default: 1, SD analysis 1=On or 0=Off HRVparams.sd.segmentlength = 300; % Default: 300, windows length in seconds %% 12. PRSA Analysis Settings HRVparams.prsa.on = 1; % Default: 1, PRSA Analysis 1=On or 0=Off HRVparams.prsa.win_length = 30; % Default: 30, The length of the PRSA signal % before and after the anchor points % (the resulting PRSA has length 2*L) HRVparams.prsa.thresh_per = 20; % Default: 20%, Percent difference that one beat can % differ from the next in the prsa code HRVparams.prsa.plot_results = 0; % Default: 0 HRVparams.prsa.scale = 2; % Default: 2, scale parameter for wavelet analysis (to compute AC and DC) %% 13. Peak Detection Settings % The following settings are for jqrs.m HRVparams.PeakDetect.REF_PERIOD = 0.250; % Default: 0.25 (should be 0.15 for FECG), refractory period in sec between two R-peaks HRVparams.PeakDetect.THRES = .6; % Default: 0.6, Energy threshold of the detector HRVparams.PeakDetect.fid_vec = []; % Default: [], If some subsegments should not be used for finding the optimal % threshold of the P&T then input the indices of the corresponding points here HRVparams.PeakDetect.SIGN_FORCE = []; % Default: [], Force sign of peaks (positive value/negative value) HRVparams.PeakDetect.debug = 0; % Default: 0 HRVparams.PeakDetect.ecgType = 'MECG'; % Default : MECG, options (adult MECG) or featl ECG (fECG) HRVparams.PeakDetect.windows = 15; % Befautl: 15,(in seconds) size of the window onto which to perform QRS detection %% 14. Entropy Settings % Multiscale Entropy HRVparams.MSE.on = 1; % Default: 1, MSE Analysis 1=On or 0=Off HRVparams.MSE.windowlength = []; % Default: [], windows size in seconds, default perform MSE on the entire signal HRVparams.MSE.increment = []; % Default: [], window increment HRVparams.MSE.RadiusOfSimilarity = 0.15; % Default: 0.15, Radius of similarity (% of std) HRVparams.MSE.patternLength = 2; % Default: 2, pattern length HRVparams.MSE.maxCoarseGrainings = 20; % Default: 20, Maximum number of coarse-grainings % SampEn an ApEn HRVparams.Entropy.on = 1; % Default: 1, MSE Analysis 1=On or 0=Off HRVparams.Entropy.RadiusOfSimilarity = 0.15; % Default: 0.15, Radius of similarity (% of std) HRVparams.Entropy.patternLength = 2; % Default: 2, pattern length %% 15. DFA Settings HRVparams.DFA.on = 1; % Default: 1, DFA Analysis 1=On or 0=Off HRVparams.DFA.windowlength = []; % Default [], windows size in seconds, default perform DFA on the entair signal HRVparams.DFA.increment = []; % Default: [], window increment HRVparams.DFA.minBoxSize = 4 ; % Default: 4, Smallest box width HRVparams.DFA.maxBoxSize = []; % Largest box width (default in DFA code: signal length/4) HRVparams.DFA.midBoxSize = 16; % Medium time scale box width (default in DFA code: 16) %% 16. Poincaré plot HRVparams.poincare.on = 1; % Default: 1, Poincare Analysis 1=On or 0=Off %% 17. Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT) - Settings HRVparams.HRT.on = 1; % Default: 1, HRT Analysis 1=On or 0=Off HRVparams.HRT.BeatsBefore = 2; % Default: 2, # of beats before PVC HRVparams.HRT.BeatsAfter = 16; % Default: 16, # of beats after PVC and CP HRVparams.HRT.GraphOn = 0; % Default: 0, do not plot HRVparams.HRT.windowlength = 24; % Default 24h, windows size in hours HRVparams.HRT.increment = 24; % Default 24h, sliding window increment in hours HRVparams.HRT.filterMethod = 'mean5before'; % Default mean5before, HRT filtering option %% 18. Output Settings HRVparams.gen_figs = 0; % Generate figures HRVparams.save_figs = 0; % Save generated figures if HRVparams.save_figs == 1 HRVparams.gen_figs = 1; end % Format settings for HRV Outputs HRVparams.output.format = 'csv'; % 'csv' - creates csv file for output % 'mat' - creates .mat file for output HRVparams.output.separate = 0; % Default : 1 = separate files for each subject % 0 = all results in one file HRVparams.output.num_win = []; % Specify number of lowest hr windows returned % leave blank if all windows should be returned % Format settings for annotations generated HRVparams.output.ann_format = 'binary'; % 'binary' = binary annotation file generated % 'csv' = ASCII CSV file generated end 
submitted by MisuzBrisby to matlab [link] [comments]

[PI] It's more than likely that Covid-19 will still be around at Christmas time - how are we going to explain to kids that Santa is still allowed to go into millions of houses?

I originally posted this in response to this AskReddit post. I recognize that it is nowhere near Christmas, but everyone needs a dose of alternate history once in a while.
I apologize for the dry nature of this post. It was definitely written as an exercise in recording my stream of consciousness. At the very most, this can be considered a brief world-building experiment.
TL:DR; For ethical reasons, your personal Santa does not live long enough to contract or transmit COVID '19.
To properly understand Santa's COVID resistance, children will have to be let in on the secret history of the Kringle Consortium, and the ancient conspiracy behind our modern Christmas traditions. This may be shocking to many children, so it is up to parents to choose when and how to expose their children to the truth. I consider it the same as explaining to a child where chicken nuggets come from; They may initially be disturbed by the truth, but knowing will eventually help them grow into well-rounded adults.
With that in mind, I present a chronological history and brief analysis of the Christmas Conspiracy, in 9 parts.

Part 1: Ancient History (300AD - 550AD)

Santa Claus was initially a mortal man - Nicholas of Myra (270 AD – 343 AD). He was a Catholic bishop in what is now Turkey, who saw the state of the poor, and would occasionally help by leaving anonymous gifts of toys, food, and money outside their homes in the night. When Nicholas died, a dedicated cabal of Christians memorialized him by secretly leaving anonymous presents for the poor in his name, on the date of his death, December 6th.
Unfortunately, Christianity underwent an exponential growth phase, under the Holy Roman Empire, and soon there were tens of thousands of Christians needed to run this operation and to maintain the myth of an immortal St Nicholas.
From about 500AD, they had realized that many cities had no idea who Nicholas of Myra was or what he looked like, and belief in him was waning, in favor of various local fairies and goblins.
The Cabal of St Nicholas, as they were known by then, had taken to arranging sightings of "St Nicholas", dressed in his iconic vestments, to combat this doubt, but they were facing an issue. At some point, people would compare descriptions of the Faux Nicholas' features. They needed reliable continuity.
Thus began the first major undertaking of this group.

Part 2: Wax Santa and the Travelling Corpse (550AD - 1100AD)

Like many holy men of the time, Nicholas of Myra's body had been painstakingly preserved and maintained, rather than being left to decay. This gave the cabal a couple of options.
First, they made molds of Nicholas's face, and constructed very detailed wax masks that could be worn when delivering gifts. These, when combined with a small costume change to obscure most of the head (this is the origin of Santa's hooded and fringed coat), allowed the gift-bringers to seem identical to the occasional child or drunkard who caught a glimpse of their activities.
However, this alone wasn't enough. The wax masks were rigid, and wouldn't pass close inspection. Santa needed to be able to occasionally make carefully managed appearances where he would speak or be seen to nod and wink or similar actions.
In or around 750AD, the cabal hired the services of Boutros Al-Hadrami, a Moorish master puppeteer, to help them resolve this issue. Al-Hadrami rigged wires and armatures to Nicholas' actual preserved corpse, to allow it to be manipulated as a sort of puppet. By all accounts Al-Hadrami was the only Turkish man available with both the skill and strength needed to operate this macabre marionette, so he travelled from town to town for decades, operating the "Hero Nicholas" puppet.
Eventually, the presence of this seemingly silent, massive black man had to be incorporated into the myth; and so began the stories of Black Peter or Krampus, depending on the region.

Part 3: The Crusades and the Age of Automation (1100AD - 1600AD)

Around 1100AD, the Knights Templar came into power within the Church, and folded many other secret orders under their direct authority. This included the Cabal of St Nicholas.
The Knights Templar were a smaller organization at the time, and were focused in part on simplifying and reducing the number of convolutions and complexities that each order added to the Faith. To that end, they were responsible for moving the date of Nicholas' appearances to December 24th, to coincide with other Christmas operations of the time, as well as reducing monetary expenditures, by giving only childrens toys, rather than money or food.
The Knights Templar were exceedingly well-funded by the riches they attained during the Crusades, but they were also extremely cautious with their money. By all accounts, they were the ones who began to run the conspiracy like a business, rather than a religious observance.
They introduced dolls in the form of Saint Nicholas for the poor, as well as running an underground network where well-off families could pay a premium to have their child visited by St Nicholas. These rich families would even be able to select the toy that Nicholas would bring their child (thus introducing the idea of a Christmas list).
The Nicholas puppet had been rarely used since the death of Al-Hadrami, as few could even come close to managing to operate the puppet, with any sense of realism.. The knights had resorted to purchasing slaves specifically for their strength, then training them to operate the puppet, but this route was producing less and less convincing performances.
Eventually, the Knights would hire Leonardo da Vinci himself to design a new form of puppet, operated entirely by springs and gears. This new "automaton" would play one of several pre-recorded actions from a pegged programming disk. However, it's size and weight made standing performances impossible.
To hide the mechanical components, and to conceal the actor providing Nicholas' voice, a large sledge was added to the myth, upon which Nicholas would be seated. To prevent close examination, this sledge was hoisted onto rooftops, and a story was concocted about flying from home to home, to deliver presents via the chimney.
However, by the end of the 15th century, it became clear that the Knights had a new problem. Christianity was spreading rapidly outside of Europe, into Africa, Asia, and even the new American continent. There was no way that they could maintain the myth across that large an area, with their current scale, and there was no way to transport the Nicholas Automaton to the new world, without significant risk of loss, damage, or exposure.
The myth needed revising, yet again.

Part 4: The Lapland Illusion (1600AD - 1900AD)

By the mid 1600s, the invention of the steam engine and the burgeoning field of optics had drawn the attention of the Knights. They needed a way to manifest "Father Christmas" (as St Nicholas was becoming known) around the world, without the logistics of world travel, so they turned to optics.
Building off the research of Galileo and his peers, Jesuit Priest, Christoph Scheiner, worked with the knights to develop a series of collimating lenses and optical repeaters that could be secreted within strategic church bell-towers, which would take an image, projected at a high brightness from a few sources, and relay it from church to eventually project a moving image onto cloud cover in many locations, potentially thousands of miles away.
However, to implement this new technology, they needed to produce a massive amount of light and motion at the origin point, without drawing attention. These hubs were built in low population areas around the world. We only know the precise locations of a few of these hubs, but they include Lapland, Tunguska, Alaska (at that time Eastern Russia), and Greenland.
It is unknown how many of these projections were actually produced, or what the effective area was for each northern operations center, but this time period was when the flying sleigh and reindeer entered the mythos.
The funding for this massive undertaking came from possibly the strangest place yet. In 1670, the knights began marketing "Candy Canes" as a Christmas confection that looked like St Nicholas' shepherd's crook (aka his bishop's staff). Soon this candy (little more than common sugar and peppermint extract) was a staple of the holiday season.
On a darker note, the commercialization of the Nicholas Conspiracy was almost complete by this point, and the manufacturing and door-to-door labor was almost entirely done by young orphans, who were paid in basic room and board. Most of these orphans didn't live to see adulthood. These "elves" were just another victim of corporate greed.
As central banks became common, the Knights Templar, now known as the Freemasons, began to divest their holdings into a group of large corporations, to launder the funds and divide and hide their large expenditures. This group of companies was called the Christkindl Consortium, or Christ-child consortium. Among the notable members were: The Federal Reserve, The Royal Bank of England, Lord and Taylor, Macy's, Hallmark, and Coca Cola.

Part 5: The Pre-Modern Era (1900AD - 1950AD)

Advancements in photography and aeronautics began to pose an existential threat to the myth of Father Christmas. An airplane could theoretically interrupt a beam path or photograph an apparition from the wrong angle. Furthermore, the isolated regions that they operated from were becoming more and more accessible to travellers. And so, the Kris Kringle Consortium, as it had become known to its American members, began a shadow arms race against the world.
Initially, things were going well, advancements in miniaturization and global power distribution seemed to indicate that they were less than a decade away from being able to produce and control full 3d apparitions of Santa from completely local base stations. Something the size of a police call box could have served an entire village. But on Jun 30th 1908, disaster struck.
A test of a power transmission tower in New York overloaded several prototype image transmitters in the Tunguska research facility, causing a massive explosion that demolished the entire facility. There were no survivors.
It was decided that the future of St Nicholas lay on a completely different path, and research was halted on the global poweimage transmission technology. Much of the developed hardware was eventually simplified and commercialized by another Kringle member, RCA. And thus, the age of television was born.
Meanwhile, the consortium shifted all funding into high-energy physics and biology, hoping to discover a fundamental paradigm shift. This was expensive, but by now, making money from Christmas was second nature to the group. They tasked Coca Cola, of all organizations, to develop a new worldwide branding for St Nicholas, complete with product tie-ins in every vertical. In the 1930s, this campaign launched, and the world finally met Santa Claus.
Unfortunately, the two world wars didn't completely bypass the Kringle Consortium. Hitler, being a consumate business man, became aware that some of his nations businesses had significant world-wide holiday reach, and he demanded that these member companies divulge the secrets of the Consortium to Nazi high command.
In 1942, Nazi Germany siezed control of the northern hub in Lapland, and used it to distribute propaganda gifts throughout mainland Europe for almost 2 years, only being successfully driven out in November of 1944. In the process, the Germans destroyed the hub, and killed all employees.
It was, in fact, a direct response to this occupation that led to a certain group of Kringle-affiliated particle physicists being brought together in the Nevada desert to find a way to definitively win the war for the Allies.

Part 6: Multiverse Traversal (1950 AD - Present)

In 1952, Irwin Schrodinger had the breakthrough that made modern Christmas possible. He was a Kringle-sponsored physicist, working on understanding quantum phenomena. Irwin had previously hypothesized that until the state of the universe is observed, it is in a state of quantum superposition, where all possible outcomes exist simultaneously. These possible outcomes represent the infinite probable variants of our universe. Observing the system collapses all the other possibilities, except the one which is selected, effectively ending these infinite and unique universes.
With the assistance of Richard Feynman, Schodinger made a further discovery in 1955. He discovered how to isolate specific objects from the quantum superposition, and cause them to persist in our universe, even after the collapse of their source universe.
Using this discovery, real versions of Saint Nicholas could be selected from universes where they lived in contemporary times, and where they were about to present a gift to any given child in the world. This discovery had almost limitless potential for the consortium's mission, but came with serious ethical considerations.
The machine made no separation between objects and people. Anything could be pulled from the waves of the Quantum Foam, just by providing accurate targeting parameters. The few members of the Catholic Magisterium tasked with oversight of the project were adamant that it could not be used on a human.
They believed that either the resulting human would have a soul, in which case they would have to admit that every choice we make destroys an infinite number of human lives, or it would be a soulless homunculus, imitating humanity in open defiance of God. Either was seen as an abomination.
The project was firmly restricted to whiteboards and notebook math for another 5 years, until a compromise was reached. The design was modified to allow for two types of extraction: permanent and temporary.
A permanent extraction manifested physical objects from other universes, but would not allow for the extraction of anything living. Meanwhile, a temporary extraction would last only until the quantum waveform was collapsed, by observation. At that time, a temporary extraction would return to their own universe, and cease to exist.
However, none of the scientists or business men could be trusted to operate the machine continuously. Instead, a board of executives would meet once a year, and would summon a single temporary overseer. One whose trustworthiness, ethical purity, and commitment to the cause could never be questioned, as it was confirmed by Mother Church herself.

Part 7: Nicholas Springs Eternal (Present)

On December 26th of each year, the executive board of the Kringle Consortium meets in one of two locations, The HAARP center in Alaska or the Pine Gap base in Australia, and ask their quantum machine a single, binary question: "Does the human race deserve joy."
This question is used as the basis of a quantum superposition which is sustained for an entire year, and which is used to manifest that year's Santa Prime (sometimes humorously called Old Nick, or The King in Red). This incarnation of Saint Nicolas (or simulacrum thereof) is immediately given full control of the machine and of all associated resources, to prepare for the next Christmas.
Over the course of the year, question after question is queued into the machine's massive registers, with all the associated intelligence needed to answer it. "Is [James Voorst, Sally Embry, Xiu Chen, etc] NAUGHTY or NICE?". Old Nick's job is to ensure that no answer is predetermined, and no name is missed.
On December 24, as the first time zone reaches midnight, the machine's primary function is triggered, and Santa Prime takes his seat as observer. Hundreds of thousands of superpositions are created every second, and the machine selects the best universe match it can find within an time for walking the tree. From that universe, the relevant gift is permanently manifested, and the relevant santa is temporarily manifested to deliver it.
Once delivered, and properly out of sight, the result of the machine is observed by Santa Prime, destroying any evidence of that local Santa's existence, except for the gift, and perhaps as a final mercy to the deceased, a consumed final meal of milk and cookies.
When at last his nightly harvest is done, the King in Red, would-be savior of the poor and executioner to millions of his own kin, lays down for his own winter's nap, never to wake.

Part 8: How Does This all Relate to COVID '19?

Children can be assured that the universe pruning algorithm has been designed to reject any universe in which an ongoing pandemic threatens the health of the child. Santa will be perfectly healthy when he delivers your gift, and then will be ethically disposed of in the collapse of the quantum waveform.

Part 9: Frequently Asked Questions

Why doesn't every child get presents? Why isn't every present perfect? Why do children sometimes see their parents place their gifts?
The universe selection algorithm is a variant of a MIN/MAX pruning of an infinite binary tree of universes. 1.5+ billion of these selections need to occur every night. So naturally, there is a timeout that will select the best universe evaluated, even if it doesn't meet the minimum threshold for a perfect santa experience. The project targets year over year improvements in this field, rather than perfection.
What about bad santas? Could one be selected by accident?
Unfortunately, a small number of casualties must be considered acceptable by the project. That's why suicide and abduction rates all increase slightly around Christmas. This has been identified as an opportunity for potential improvement of the project in future years.
What about Santa Prime? Could we ever select a bad one?
Thankfully the longevity of Santa Prime's manifestation allows the machine to perform a much more exhaustive search of the multiverse. So long as there is a reasonable chance that the Prime question could be answered "yes", we should never receive a negative Prime Manifestation. So, you tell me, "Does the world deserve Joy?"
submitted by gschoppe to HFY [link] [comments]

[N] Tensorflow 2.3.0 Released!

There is also a new experimental tf.data API for saving and loading datasets(https://www.tensorflow.org/versions/r2.3/api_docs/python/tf/data/experimental/save)
https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/commit/4d58a67a9f19ab8d0cfbb2d8e461ebb73ce06db6
https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/issues/38483#issuecomment-640963109

https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/releases/tag/v2.3.0

Release 2.3.0

Major Features and Improvements


In addition checkout the detailed guide for analyzing input pipeline performance with TF Profiler.

Breaking Changes


Known Caveats


Bug Fixes and Other Changes

TF Core:


tf.data:


tf.distribute:


tf.keras:


tf.lite:


Packaging Support


Profiler


TPU Enhancements


Tracing and Debugging


XLA Support


submitted by IIIBlueberry to MachineLearning [link] [comments]

How to see the dashboard? Getting 404

Hi all I just created a fresh kubernetes cluster and created a namespace called 'routing'
In here I created the latest traefik via the helm chart (2.2)
I can see the pod running fine.
When I run:
kubectl get svc --namespace routing
It shows the
NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
traefik LoadBalancer cluster-ip-is-here external-ip-is-here 80:32252/TCP,443:30252/TCP 33m

I tried on my browser going to https:external-ip-is-here but it just shows 404
I tried with just http also.
Here is the file and command I am using for the dashboard:
kubectl apply -f dashboard.yml --namespace routing
and file:
# dashboard.yml
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: IngressRoute
metadata:
name: dashboard
spec:
entryPoints:
- web
routes:
- match: Host(\traefik.localhost`) && (PathPrefix(`/dashboard`) || PathPrefix(`/api`))`
kind: Rule
services:
- name: api@internal
kind: TraefikService

Here is the values file used:

# Default values for Traefik
image:
name: traefik
tag: 2.2.8
pullPolicy: IfNotPresent

#
# Configure the deployment
#
deployment:
enabled: true
# Number of pods of the deployment
replicas: 1
# Additional deployment annotations (e.g. for jaeger-operator sidecar injection)
annotations: {}
# Additional pod annotations (e.g. for mesh injection or prometheus scraping)
podAnnotations: {}
# Additional containers (e.g. for metric offloading sidecars)
additionalContainers: []
# Additional initContainers (e.g. for setting file permission as shown below)
initContainers: []
# The "volume-permissions" init container is required if you run into permission issues.
# Related issue: https://github.com/containous/traefik/issues/6972
# - name: volume-permissions
# image: busybox:1.31.1
# command: ["sh", "-c", "chmod -Rv 600 /data/*"]
# volumeMounts:
# - name: data
# mountPath: /data
# Custom pod DNS policy. Apply if \hostNetwork: true``
# dnsPolicy: ClusterFirstWithHostNet

# Pod disruption budget
podDisruptionBudget:
enabled: false
# maxUnavailable: 1
# minAvailable: 0

# Create an IngressRoute for the dashboard
ingressRoute:
dashboard:
enabled: true
# Additional ingressRoute annotations (e.g. for kubernetes.io/ingress.class)
annotations: {}
# Additional ingressRoute labels (e.g. for filtering IngressRoute by custom labels)
labels: {}

rollingUpdate:
maxUnavailable: 1
maxSurge: 1


#
# Configure providers
#
providers:
kubernetesCRD:
enabled: true
kubernetesIngress:
enabled: true
# IP used for Kubernetes Ingress endpoints
publishedService:
enabled: false
# Published Kubernetes Service to copy status from. Format: namespace/servicename
# By default this Traefik service
# pathOverride: ""

#
# Add volumes to the traefik pod.
# This can be used to mount a cert pair or a configmap that holds a config.toml file.
# After the volume has been mounted, add the configs into traefik by using the \additionalArguments` list below, eg:`
# additionalArguments:
# - "--providers.file.filename=/config/dynamic.toml"
volumes: []
# - name: public-cert
# mountPath: "/certs"
# type: secret
# - name: configs
# mountPath: "/config"
# type: configMap

# Logs
# https://docs.traefik.io/observability/logs/
logs:
# Traefik logs concern everything that happens to Traefik itself (startup, configuration, events, shutdown, and so on).
general:
# By default, the logs use a text format (common), but you can
# also ask for the json format in the format option
# format: json
# By default, the level is set to ERROR. Alternative logging levels are DEBUG, PANIC, FATAL, ERROR, WARN, and INFO.
level: ERROR
access:
# To enable access logs
enabled: false
# By default, logs are written using the Common Log Format (CLF).
# To write logs in JSON, use json in the format option.
# If the given format is unsupported, the default (CLF) is used instead.
# format: json
# To write the logs in an asynchronous fashion, specify a bufferingSize option.
# This option represents the number of log lines Traefik will keep in memory before writing
# them to the selected output. In some cases, this option can greatly help performances.
# bufferingSize: 100
# Filtering https://docs.traefik.io/observability/access-logs/#filtering
filters: {}
# statuscodes: "200,300-302"
# retryattempts: true
# minduration: 10ms
# Fields
# https://docs.traefik.io/observability/access-logs/#limiting-the-fieldsincluding-headers
fields:
general:
defaultmode: keep
names: {}
# Examples:
# ClientUsername: drop
headers:
defaultmode: drop
names: {}
# Examples:
# User-Agent: redact
# Authorization: drop
# Content-Type: keep

globalArguments:
- "--global.checknewversion"
- "--global.sendanonymoususage"

#
# Configure Traefik static configuration
# Additional arguments to be passed at Traefik's binary
# All available options available on https://docs.traefik.io/reference/static-configuration/cli/
## Use curly braces to pass values: \helm install --set="additionalArguments={--providers.kubernetesingress.ingressclass=traefik-internal,--log.level=DEBUG}"``
additionalArguments: []
# - "--providers.kubernetesingress.ingressclass=traefik-internal"
# - "--log.level=DEBUG"

# Environment variables to be passed to Traefik's binary
env: []
# - name: SOME_VAR
# value: some-var-value
# - name: SOME_VAR_FROM_CONFIG_MAP
# valueFrom:
# configMapRef:
# name: configmap-name
# key: config-key
# - name: SOME_SECRET
# valueFrom:
# secretKeyRef:
# name: secret-name
# key: secret-key

envFrom: []
# - configMapRef:
# name: config-map-name
# - secretRef:
# name: secret-name

# Configure ports
ports:
# The name of this one can't be changed as it is used for the readiness and
# liveness probes, but you can adjust its config to your liking
traefik:
port: 9000
# Use hostPort if set.
# hostPort: 9000
#
# Use hostIP if set. If not set, Kubernetes will default to 0.0.0.0, which
# means it's listening on all your interfaces and all your IPs. You may want
# to set this value if you need traefik to listen on specific interface
# only.
# hostIP: 192.168.100.10

# Defines whether the port is exposed if service.type is LoadBalancer or
# NodePort.
#
# You SHOULD NOT expose the traefik port on production deployments.
# If you want to access it from outside of your cluster,
# use \kubectl proxy` or create a secure ingress`
expose: false
# The exposed port for this service
exposedPort: 9000
# The port protocol (TCP/UDP)
protocol: TCP
web:
port: 8000
# hostPort: 8000
expose: true
exposedPort: 80
# The port protocol (TCP/UDP)
protocol: TCP
# Use nodeport if set. This is useful if you have configured Traefik in a
# LoadBalancer
# nodePort: 32080
# Port Redirections
# Added in 2.2, you can make permanent redirects via entrypoints.
# https://docs.traefik.io/routing/entrypoints/#redirection
# redirectTo: websecure
websecure:
port: 8443
# hostPort: 8443
expose: true
exposedPort: 443
# The port protocol (TCP/UDP)
protocol: TCP
# nodePort: 32443

# Options for the main traefik service, where the entrypoints traffic comes
# from.
service:
enabled: true
type: LoadBalancer
# Additional annotations (e.g. for cloud provider specific config)
annotations: {}
# Additional entries here will be added to the service spec. Cannot contains
# type, selector or ports entries.
spec: {}
# externalTrafficPolicy: Cluster
# loadBalancerIP: "1.2.3.4"
# clusterIP: "2.3.4.5"
loadBalancerSourceRanges: []
# - 192.168.0.1/32
# - 172.16.0.0/16
externalIPs: []
# - 1.2.3.4

## Create HorizontalPodAutoscaler object.
##
autoscaling:
enabled: false
# minReplicas: 1
# maxReplicas: 10
# metrics:
# - type: Resource
# resource:
# name: cpu
# targetAverageUtilization: 60
# - type: Resource
# resource:
# name: memory
# targetAverageUtilization: 60

# Enable persistence using Persistent Volume Claims
# ref: http://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/persistent-volumes/
# After the pvc has been mounted, add the configs into traefik by using the \additionalArguments` list below, eg:`
# additionalArguments:
# - "--certificatesresolvers.le.acme.storage=/data/acme.json"
# It will persist TLS certificates.
persistence:
enabled: false
# existingClaim: ""
accessMode: ReadWriteOnce
size: 128Mi
# storageClass: ""
path: /data
annotations: {}
# subPath: "" # only mount a subpath of the Volume into the pod

# If hostNetwork is true, runs traefik in the host network namespace
# To prevent unschedulabel pods due to port collisions, if hostNetwork=true
# and replicas>1, a pod anti-affinity is recommended and will be set if the
# affinity is left as default.
hostNetwork: false

# Whether Role Based Access Control objects like roles and rolebindings should be created
rbac:
enabled: true

# If set to false, installs ClusterRole and ClusterRoleBinding so Traefik can be used across namespaces.
# If set to true, installs namespace-specific Role and RoleBinding and requires provider configuration be set to that same namespace
namespaced: false

# The service account the pods will use to interact with the Kubernetes API
serviceAccount:
# If set, an existing service account is used
# If not set, a service account is created automatically using the fullname template
name: ""

# Additional serviceAccount annotations (e.g. for oidc authentication)
serviceAccountAnnotations: {}

resources: {}
# requests:
# cpu: "100m"
# memory: "50Mi"
# limits:
# cpu: "300m"
# memory: "150Mi"
affinity: {}
# # This example pod anti-affinity forces the scheduler to put traefik pods
# # on nodes where no other traefik pods are scheduled.
# # It should be used when hostNetwork: true to prevent port conflicts
# podAntiAffinity:
# requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
# - labelSelector:
# matchExpressions:
# - key: app
# operator: In
# values:
# - {{ template "traefik.name" . }}
# topologyKey: failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone
nodeSelector: {}
tolerations: []

# Pods can have priority.
# Priority indicates the importance of a Pod relative to other Pods.
priorityClassName: ""

# Set the container security context
# To run the container with ports below 1024 this will need to be adjust to run as root
securityContext:
capabilities:
drop: [ALL]
readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
runAsGroup: 65532
runAsNonRoot: true
runAsUser: 65532

podSecurityContext:
fsGroup: 65532
submitted by bran-695 to Traefik [link] [comments]

[Results] Do you like ice-cream? (all about names)

Now, for anyone who didn't take part in this survey, let me briefly explain. This survey wasn't actually about ice-cream. What I set out to investigate was how willing people are to give out their own name online on a survey. To do this I put together a seemingly innocent survey purporting to be about ice-cream. Respondents were first asked for some demographic information, with a question asking for their name included, before being asked the "actual" question of Do you like ice-cream? on the next page. On the final page the ruse was revealed and respondents were asked how they responded to the name question: with their real name, another name, or something that's not a name at all, i.e. a non-name.
I got 915 responses from over 60 countries, which I was very pleased with. So thank you very much to everyone who took part!
Although the ice-cream question wasn't actually the main focus of the survey, I've put together the results of that question too for anyone who's interested, which I'll post in a comment below.
Without further ado, the results:
Just over half of respondents gave their real name. Interestingly, for the first few hours of the survey, the three options were consistently roughly even, at about a third each (and so the majority were not giving their real name). It was quite a bit later on that the real name preference started to show. This is probably a reflection of the different demographics of people on SampleSize at different times of day.
There isn't much difference across gender, with a similar percentage giving their real name for all three options. However, non-binary people were the most likely to give a non-name and the least likely to give a fake name while women were at the opposite end, being the least likely to give a non-name and the most likely to give a fake name, with men in the middle.
There is a very clear trend of younger people being more likely to give their own name and older people being less likely to. It's worth noting that a suspiciously high number of people in their 60s were 69, which may explain the high proportion of 'joke' non-name responses.
Canada and Australia had a notably lower proportion giving their real name than other countries. The Netherlands had the smallest proportion to give a fake name.
And just for fun:
It seems people who don't like ice-cream are less willing to give their real name but quite unlikely to give a fake name, much preferring a non-name. This could indicate some of these are joke responses.
A couple of things to bear in mind:
Last points:
Most people who gave their real name gave only their first name. A small minority gave their full name.
About three quarters of 'another name' responses seem feasible while a quarter did not (e.g. names like Ben Dover or Jennifer Lopez).
Some favourite responses to What is your name?:
Edit: Link to original thread.
submitted by tg3y to SampleSize [link] [comments]

A guide on hitting Legend in Comp

Crossposting this from /crucibleplaybook, figured some people on here might find this helpful as well. A lot of this post applies to all Comp, not just hitting Legend.
I’ve been seeing a lot of posts lately asking for tips for hitting Legend in Comp so I figured I’d put together a brief guide for anyone that’s interested. I’m happy to see so many people interested in hitting Legend!
Intro
First off, a little bit about me. I never played D1 so I had a rough first few months of D2Y1 (and a rough first few weeks of Y2 with the new special weapon uptime and TTK) as it was my first time with the Destiny franchise. But even then had a blast in Crucible and I always wanted to get better. I’m also an extremely competitive person so that helped fuel my desire for improvement.
I play on Xbox and I just got my Unbroken title this season so I’ve been to Legend 3 times (S4, S6, S7). I’ve learned a ton along the way and hitting Legend each season has been easier and more enjoyable than the previous one for a variety of reasons that I’ll share in this post.
Improvement Mindset
While your end goal is to hit Legend, focusing on this binary goal isn’t a good idea. A better approach is to think of playing Comp with the main goal of improving both as a player and a team. With this more open and long-term mindset, you will improve rapidly as a player, win more often, and have a much more enjoyable experience as a result.
When you focus on something as binary as hitting a certain rank, every game or even decision within a game starts to feel tense and you put an immense amount of artificial pressure on yourself. This often builds over the course of a game. Even if it’s subconscious, it will effect your play. You’ll play too passive, too aggressive, and/or make bad decisions. Your brain will be too wrapped up playing out the consequences of failure to focus on what you should be doing to give yourself and your team the best chances of winning. It’s been scientifically proven both in real sports and in E-Sports that tension leads to poor performance.
Instead, take every engagement and every game as an opportunity to learn something and to improve. You WILL start getting your ass kicked at some point, it’s just a matter of when. It might be at 3k and it might not be until 5k, but at some point it’ll happen. And when it does, the best thing to do is to record your gameplay and watch it back.
Gameplay Review
You can easily record your gameplay via Twitch by streaming and having it save past broadcasts. Then you can watch your gameplay there, or you can take it a step further and download your gameplay and run it through a free video editing program such as DaVinci Resolve or iMovie. The advantage of doing it this way is you can better control the playback and even view it frame-by-frame.
I’d recommend picking a game that you performed poorly and watch it once all the way through and take some mental notes. Then I’d watch it again, noting each death with why you died and what you could have done better to either kill your opponent first or escape safely. Even if you died to a Wardcliff or a solo super, write down something you could have done differently to prevent dying. Then categorize and tally them the best you can. The most frequent ones are what you should focus on getting better at. This can be during your next Comp session or QP/Rumble.
The reason reviewing your gameplay is so important is it’ll help speed up your rate of improvement and help you get past your current plateau a bit faster. Games in high comp tend to be very fast paced so it can be hard to think about or remember exactly what happened. Or what you think happened in the moment wasn’t what really happened and the gameplay review will show you this.
While it’s certainly possible to improve naturally and over time, recording and reviewing your gameplay will make you improve faster.
Playing the meta
A lot of people seem reluctant to use meta loadouts for whatever reason. I think most of it boils down to either wanting to be unique, or having a superiority complex by refusing to use certain good or easy to use weapons and strategies because they’re “cheap” or too easy. Throw all of this out the window.
There’s nothing cheap in Comp (other than DDoSing which is actual cheating and we won’t discuss it). There’s nothing that takes “no skill” to use. If it’s in the game then it’s fair game to be used as much and as effectively as possible. Everything has a counter. If you don’t believe this then you probably have a scrub mentality and it’s going to hold you back. There are some great posts about scrub mentality on this very sub.
Meta loadouts or weapons are usually the perfect cross section of both lethality and ease-of-use - USE THEM. This is the time and the place. Your opponents are trying to win at all costs and so should you.
I don’t want to go too much into detail here or debate here, but in general these are the best options for high comp on Console (4k+). They’re ranked in terms of effectiveness, so it’s probably better to improve with something at the top of the list than use something at the bottom.
Primary Weapons: * Luna (NF if you have it already) * Adaptive or Aggressive pulse rifles * Ace/Thorn/TLW * Very well rolled Legendary HC * Jade Rabbit/Mida/Polaris Lance (large maps only)
Special Weapons: * Aggressive or Precision frame Shotgun (MindbendeToil/Imperial Decree/DRB/Retold Tale) * Erentil or Wizened Rebuke * Beloved/Twilight Oath/Supremacy/Revoker
Heavy Weapons: * Wardcliff * Truth * PotG * Any rocket launcher
Subclasses: * Hunter - middle void, middle or bottom arc * Titan - bottom void or bottom arc * Warlock - top arc or bottom solar
Exotics: * Stompees for Hunter * OEM or Antaeus Wards for Titan * Transversive Steps for Warlock
Mods: * 3+ super mods * 1-2 paragon mods for hunter if desired * 1-2 grenade mods for stormcaller or sentinel if desired * Otherwise 5 super mods
Stats: * Minimum of 1 resilience with as little as possible (Titans min is 3 or 4 I think). The rest goes to mobility and/or recovery. I’d recommend 6+ mobility for most people, but some prefer a lower mobility and higher recovery.
I don’t really want to debate what else is meta or what’s the best or other specifics. But in my experience both playing and watching others play high comp, this is the meta.
For weapons, Luna and a shotgun is still the best and most versatile loadout for most people and most maps. Consider swapping to a pulse or scout instead of Luna (or a sniper instead of a shotgun) for larger maps. Especially for countdown, consider having at least one sniper on your team as being able to get a pick and play 4v3 puts your team at a huge advantage. Fusion rifles are also incredibly strong right now. You can basically treat one like your primary weapon and just use your actual primary to clean people up or shoot people past ~30m.
In the current meta supers are incredibly important. You want to use them frequently and make orbs for your teammates for them to pick up and vice versa. Try to use your super when the enemy team doesn’t have any supers ready or heavy ammo is about to be up. Coordinate with your teammates on who’s popping a super and when so you don’t double pop and your teammates can get heavy, map control, and shoot the enemies running away from you.
I’ve gotten some questions on why so little resilience so I’ll answer it here. You’re going to die to supers, heavy ammo, and special weapons a lot more than primaries. Your resilience won’t really matter against those things. Plus the primaries you do see in high comp (mostly NF) don’t get effected by resilience. And even the other ones that you’ll occasionally see, resilience doesn’t really change the TTK, it only requires more headshots instead of body shots. At this level most players will be hitting their headshots anyways. Resilience was much more important in Y1 when there was a lot of primary weapon uptime.
The only time I’d recommend a higher resilience is if you’re on a Titan with OEM (to supplement recovery) and prefer low mobility. 7+ resilience will cause Erentil to take 5 bolts instead of 4 and might occasionally make a shotgun need to hit an extra pellet out of the spread to kill you (10 pellets of the 12, instead of 9 of 12 for example), among a couple of other minor advantages. I still wouldn’t really recommend it as I think you get more overall usage out of high recovery, but I’ve seen some people in high comp make it work.
Controlling heavy ammo wins games. Titans can use their barricade to pull heavy even while the other team is laning it. Prioritize getting the heavy and preventing your opponents from getting it. Once you get it, use it and don’t die with it. I’d recommend using it quickly but if you’re running Wardcliff it’s not a bad idea to save a rocket for an opponents super.
Finding Teammates
One of the most important parts of hitting Legend is having quality teammates. And by quality I mean both skill and temperament. Unless you already have a large friends list filled with quality teammates, you’ll need to network to find some. You can do this both in-game and using LFG. You can solo queue with a decent amount of success until about 3.5k or so, then you’ll want to start forming a team. If you seem to gel with teammates when solo queuing, shoot them a message and ask if they’d like to team up.
As far as LFG goes, there are lots of LFG websites these days. I’ve personally had a lot of success with Xbox’s built in LFG system. LFG can get a bad rep at times which is understandable. Some people are toxic, can tilt easily, blame teammates, complain all the time, not very skilled, etc. You obviously want to avoid these types of people and instead find teammates that are skilled, chill, encouraging and fun to play with. The best way to do this is to host the LFG group yourself by making the post and weeding people out. I’m not going to debate if/how important KD is to determine someone’s skill and if/what minimum you should ask for, use your own discretion here.
Once you get a team, just start playing. It might take a game or two for everyone to start to feel more comfortable with one another based on playstyles, tendencies, personalities, communication, etc. If things are going well after 4 or 5 games, keep playing. If they keep going well, add them to your friends list and ask them to do the same. If the games are not going well, you don’t seem to be playing together well as a team, and/or your personalities don’t seem to fit, consider politely excusing yourself and forming a new group. There’s absolutely nothing wrong with doing this. Sometimes the team is just not a good fit for whatever reason, it’s best for everyone to just move on with no hard feelings.
And by games going well I don’t necessarily mean winning. Are you guys teamshotting well? Baiting and switching effectively? Controlling the power ammo? Timing super usage? Moving together as a team? Playing complimentary angels and watching each other’s back? All of these things are good signs of a team working well. One of the best indicators is the number of assists you’re getting as a team (these can be looked up on any 3rd party website).
If your team is playing well together over a long session, like I said, add them and ask if they’ll do the same. Next time you get on, ask if they want to play before looking for a group via LFG. Sometimes they’ll even have friends that want to play as well which is great! Add anyone and everyone you play well with and seem to be on the same page with both in-game and personality wise. Rinse and repeat and you’ll have a solid list of friends to play Comp with. If you keep networking you can grow your friends list very quickly and effectively. You can also use Discord to schedule comp sessions.
The best way to attract good teammates is to be the best teammate you can. Be the teammate that you’d want on your team every single game and make things easy on your teammates. Hype them up for making good plays and encourage them if they make a bad one. Team shoot, make good callouts, don’t tilt, etc. Anything you’d look for in a good teammate, try to do that yourself and you’ll attract some great people to play with.
Always warm up before playing Comp and make sure your teammates have too. Rumble or QP is fine, but even a quick 10 minute private match rumble with your comp team can help warm up and build some camaraderie.
Closing Thoughts
Reaching Legend in Comp is seen by most as a daunting task and not how it should be seen - a huge accomplishment. Most people won’t even attempt to try for a variety of reasons ranging from pride to not enough reward to time and effort. High Comp is very challenging and honestly a much different game than QP or low Comp. It can be frustrating and stressful. But if you think of it as playing to improve and become the best player you can instead of just hitting Legend, then it’ll be very well worth it. Drastically improving as a player and as a result eventually hitting Legend is by far the best feeling in the entire game.
You might not even get there this season but that’s okay! But by having an improvement mindset and improving as a player, you’ll have a leg up next season - just stick with it and you’ll get there.
My final parting piece of advice is to just enjoy the journey. You’ll lose some close games and you’ll win some close games. You’ll get blown out by streamers or recovs and you’ll surprise yourself and beat some teams that are much better than you. Don’t sweat any of the losses, just enjoy playing the game. At the end of the day, this is a video game that we all play for fun.
One thing to keep in mind, especially once you get past 5k and are making that final push, you’re playing against some of the best players in the world and many of them play Comp for a living or it’s literally all they do. For most of us this is just one of many hobbies that we do for fun in our spare time, so don’t get too upset when you lose to these teams.
Thanks for reading - good luck and have fun! I’d be happy to answer any questions that anybody has.
Cheers!
submitted by Keetonicc to DestinyTheGame [link] [comments]

A guide on hitting Legend rank in Comp

I’ve been seeing a lot of posts lately asking for tips for hitting Legend in Comp so I figured I’d put together a brief guide for anyone that’s interested. I’m happy to see so many people interested in hitting Legend! A lot of this post applies to comp in general, not necessarily just hitting Legend.
Intro
First off, a little bit about me. I never played D1 so I had a rough first few months of D2Y1 (and a rough first few weeks of Y2 with the new special weapon uptime and TTK) as it was my first time with the Destiny franchise. But even then had a blast in Crucible and I always wanted to get better. I’m also an extremely competitive person so that helped fuel my desire for improvement.
I play on Xbox and I just got my Unbroken title this season so I’ve been to Legend 3 times (S4, S6, S7). I’ve learned a ton along the way and hitting Legend each season has been easier and more enjoyable than the previous one for a variety of reasons that I’ll share in this post.
Improvement Mindset
While your end goal is to hit Legend, focusing on this binary goal isn’t a good idea. A better approach is to think of playing Comp with the main goal of improving both as a player and a team. With this more open and long-term mindset, you will improve rapidly as a player, win more often, and have a much more enjoyable experience as a result.
When you focus on something as binary as hitting a certain rank, every game or even decision within a game starts to feel tense and you put an immense amount of artificial pressure on yourself. This often builds over the course of a game. Even if it’s subconscious, it will effect your play. You’ll play too passive, too aggressive, and/or make bad decisions. Your brain will be too wrapped up playing out the consequences of failure to focus on what you should be doing to give yourself and your team the best chances of winning. It’s been scientifically proven both in real sports and in E-Sports that tension leads to poor performance.
Instead, take every engagement and every game as an opportunity to learn something and to improve. You WILL start getting your ass kicked at some point, it’s just a matter of when. It might be at 3k and it might not be until 5k, but at some point it’ll happen. And when it does, the best thing to do is to record your gameplay and watch it back.
Gameplay Review
You can easily record your gameplay via Twitch by streaming and having it save past broadcasts. Then you can watch your gameplay there, or you can take it a step further and download your gameplay and run it through a free video editing program such as DaVinci Resolve or iMovie. The advantage of doing it this way is you can better control the playback and even view it frame-by-frame.
I’d recommend picking a game that you performed poorly and watch it once all the way through and take some mental notes. Then I’d watch it again, noting each death with why you died and what you could have done better to either kill your opponent first or escape safely. Even if you died to a Wardcliff or a solo super, write down something you could have done differently to prevent dying. Then categorize and tally them the best you can. The most frequent ones are what you should focus on getting better at. This can be during your next Comp session or QP/Rumble.
The reason reviewing your gameplay is so important is it’ll help speed up your rate of improvement and help you get past your current plateau a bit faster. Games in high comp tend to be very fast paced so it can be hard to think about or remember exactly what happened. Or what you think happened in the moment wasn’t what really happened and the gameplay review will show you this.
While it’s certainly possible to improve naturally and over time, recording and reviewing your gameplay will make you improve faster.
Playing the meta
A lot of people seem reluctant to use meta loadouts for whatever reason. I think most of it boils down to either wanting to be unique, or having a superiority complex by refusing to use certain good or easy to use weapons and strategies because they’re “cheap” or too easy. Throw all of this out the window.
There’s nothing cheap in Comp (other than DDoSing which is actual cheating and we won’t discuss it). There’s nothing that takes “no skill” to use. If it’s in the game then it’s fair game to be used as much and as effectively as possible. Everything has a counter. If you don’t believe this then you probably have a scrub mentality and it’s going to hold you back. There are some great posts about scrub mentality on this very sub.
Meta loadouts or weapons are usually the perfect cross section of both lethality and ease-of-use - USE THEM. This is the time and the place. Your opponents are trying to win at all costs and so should you.
I don’t want to go too much into detail here or debate here, but in general these are the best options for high comp on Console (4k+). They’re ranked in terms of effectiveness, so it’s probably better to improve with something at the top of the list than use something at the bottom.
Primary Weapons: * Luna (NF if you have it already) * Adaptive or Aggressive pulse rifles * Ace/Thorn/TLW * Very well rolled Legendary HC * Jade Rabbit/Mida/Polaris Lance (large maps only)
Special Weapons: * Aggressive or Precision frame Shotgun (MindbendeToil/Imperial Decree/DRB/Retold Tale) * Erentil or Wizened Rebuke * Beloved/Twilight Oath/Supremacy/Revoker
Heavy Weapons: * Wardcliff * Truth * PotG * Any rocket launcher
Subclasses: * Hunter - middle void, middle or bottom arc * Titan - bottom void or bottom arc * Warlock - top arc or bottom solar
Exotics: * Stompees for Hunter * OEM or Antaeus Wards for Titan * Transversive Steps for Warlock
Mods: * 3+ super mods * 1-2 paragon mods for hunter if desired * 1-2 grenade mods for stormcaller or sentinel if desired * Otherwise 5 super mods
Stats: * Minimum of 1 resilience with as little as possible (Titans min is 3 or 4 I think). The rest goes to mobility and/or recovery. I’d recommend 6+ mobility for most people, but some prefer a lower mobility and higher recovery.
I don’t really want to debate what else is meta or what’s the best or other specifics. But in my experience both playing and watching others play high comp, this is the meta.
For weapons, Luna and a shotgun is still the best and most versatile loadout for most people and most maps. Consider swapping to a pulse or scout instead of Luna (or a sniper instead of a shotgun) for larger maps. Especially for countdown, consider having at least one sniper on your team as being able to get a pick and play 4v3 puts your team at a huge advantage. Fusion rifles are also incredibly strong right now. You can basically treat one like your primary weapon and just use your actual primary to clean people up or shoot people past ~30m.
In the current meta supers are incredibly important. You want to use them frequently and make orbs for your teammates for them to pick up and vice versa. Try to use your super when the enemy team doesn’t have any supers ready or heavy ammo is about to be up. Coordinate with your teammates on who’s popping a super and when so you don’t double pop and your teammates can get heavy, map control, and shoot the enemies running away from you.
I’ve gotten some questions on why so little resilience so I’ll answer it here. You’re going to die to supers, heavy ammo, and special weapons a lot more than primaries. Your resilience won’t really matter against those things. Plus the primaries you do see in high comp (mostly NF) don’t get effected by resilience. And even the other ones that you’ll occasionally see, resilience doesn’t really change the TTK, it only requires more headshots instead of body shots. At this level most players will be hitting their headshots anyways. Resilience was much more important in Y1 when there was a lot of primary weapon uptime.
The only time I’d recommend a higher resilience is if you’re on a Titan with OEM (to supplement recovery) and prefer low mobility. 7+ resilience will cause Erentil to take 5 bolts instead of 4 and might occasionally make a shotgun need to hit an extra pellet out of the spread to kill you (10 pellets of the 12, instead of 9 of 12 for example), among a couple of other minor advantages. I still wouldn’t really recommend it as I think you get more overall usage out of high recovery, but I’ve seen some people in high comp make it work.
Controlling heavy ammo wins games. Titans can use their barricade to pull heavy even while the other team is laning it. Prioritize getting the heavy and preventing your opponents from getting it. Once you get it, use it and don’t die with it. I’d recommend using it quickly but if you’re running Wardcliff it’s not a bad idea to save a rocket for an opponents super.
Finding Teammates
One of the most important parts of hitting Legend is having quality teammates. And by quality I mean both skill and temperament. Unless you already have a large friends list filled with quality teammates, you’ll need to network to find some. You can do this both in-game and using LFG. You can solo queue with a decent amount of success until about 3.5k or so, then you’ll want to start forming a team. If you seem to gel with teammates when solo queuing, shoot them a message and ask if they’d like to team up.
As far as LFG goes, there are lots of LFG websites these days. I’ve personally had a lot of success with Xbox’s built in LFG system. LFG can get a bad rep at times which is understandable. Some people are toxic, can tilt easily, blame teammates, complain all the time, not very skilled, etc. You obviously want to avoid these types of people and instead find teammates that are skilled, chill, encouraging and fun to play with. The best way to do this is to host the LFG group yourself by making the post and weeding people out. I’m not going to debate if/how important KD is to determine someone’s skill and if/what minimum you should ask for, use your own discretion here.
Once you get a team, just start playing. It might take a game or two for everyone to start to feel more comfortable with one another based on playstyles, tendencies, personalities, communication, etc. If things are going well after 4 or 5 games, keep playing. If they keep going well, add them to your friends list and ask them to do the same. If the games are not going well, you don’t seem to be playing together well as a team, and/or your personalities don’t seem to fit, consider politely excusing yourself and forming a new group. There’s absolutely nothing wrong with doing this. Sometimes the team is just not a good fit for whatever reason, it’s best for everyone to just move on with no hard feelings.
And by games going well I don’t necessarily mean winning. Are you guys teamshotting well? Baiting and switching effectively? Controlling the power ammo? Timing super usage? Moving together as a team? Playing complimentary angels and watching each other’s back? All of these things are good signs of a team working well. One of the best indicators is the number of assists you’re getting as a team (these can be looked up on any 3rd party website).
If your team is playing well together over a long session, like I said, add them and ask if they’ll do the same. Next time you get on, ask if they want to play before looking for a group via LFG. Sometimes they’ll even have friends that want to play as well which is great! Add anyone and everyone you play well with and seem to be on the same page with both in-game and personality wise. Rinse and repeat and you’ll have a solid list of friends to play Comp with. If you keep networking you can grow your friends list very quickly and effectively. You can also use Discord to schedule comp sessions.
The best way to attract good teammates is to be the best teammate you can. Be the teammate that you’d want on your team every single game and make things easy on your teammates. Hype them up for making good plays and encourage them if they make a bad one. Team shoot, make good callouts, don’t tilt, etc. Anything you’d look for in a good teammate, try to do that yourself and you’ll attract some great people to play with.
Always warm up before playing Comp and make sure your teammates have too. Rumble or QP is fine, but even a quick 10 minute private match rumble with your comp team can help warm up and build some camaraderie.
Closing Thoughts
Reaching Legend in Comp is seen by most as a daunting task and not how it should be seen - a huge accomplishment. Most people won’t even attempt to try for a variety of reasons ranging from pride to not enough reward to time and effort. High Comp is very challenging and honestly a much different game than QP or low Comp. It can be frustrating and stressful. But if you think of it as playing to improve and become the best player you can instead of just hitting Legend, then it’ll be very well worth it. Drastically improving as a player and as a result eventually hitting Legend is by far the best feeling in the entire game.
You might not even get there this season but that’s okay! But by having an improvement mindset and improving as a player, you’ll have a leg up next season - just stick with it and you’ll get there.
My final parting piece of advice is to just enjoy the journey. You’ll lose some close games and you’ll win some close games. You’ll get blown out by streamers or recovs and you’ll surprise yourself and beat some teams that are much better than you. Don’t sweat any of the losses, just enjoy playing the game. At the end of the day, this is a video game that we all play for fun.
One thing to keep in mind, especially once you get past 5k and are making that final push, you’re playing against some of the best players in the world and many of them play Comp for a living or it’s literally all they do. For most of us this is just one of many hobbies that we do for fun in our spare time, so don’t get too upset when you lose to these teams.
Thanks for reading - good luck and have fun! I’d be happy to answer any questions that anybody has.
Cheers!
submitted by Keetonicc to CruciblePlaybook [link] [comments]

[Table] Asteroid Day AMA – We’re engineers and scientists working on a mission that could, one day, help save humankind from asteroid extinction. Ask us anything!

Source
There are several people answering: Paolo Martino is PM, Marco Micheli is MM, Heli Greus is HG, Detlef Koschny is DVK, and Aidan Cowley is AC.
Questions Answers
Can we really detect any asteroids in space with accuracy and do we have any real means of destroying it? Yes, we can detect new asteroids when they are still in space. Every night dozens of new asteroids are found, including a few that can come close to the Earth.
Regarding the second part of the question, the goal would be to deflect them more than destroy them, and it is technologically possible. The Hera/DART mission currently being developed by ESA and NASA will demonstrate exactly this capability.
MM
I always wanted to ask: what is worse for life on Earth - to be hit by a single coalesced asteroid chunk, or to be hit by a multiple smaller pieces of exploded asteroid, aka disrupted rubble pile scenario? DVK: This is difficult to answer. If the rubble is small (centimetres to meters) it is better to have lots of small ones – they’d create nice bright meteors. If the rubble pieces are tens of meters it doesn’t help.
Let’s say that hypothetically, an asteroid the size of Rhode Island is coming at us, it will be a direct hit - you’ve had the resources and funding you need, your plan is fully in place, everything you’ve wanted you got. The asteroid will hit in 10 years, what do you do? DVK: I had to look up how big Rhode Island is – a bit larger than the German Bundesland ‘Saarland’. Ok – this would correspond to an object about 60 km in diameter, right? That’s quite big – we would need a lot of rocket launches, this would be extremely difficult. I would pray. The good news is that we are quite convinced that we know all objects larger than just a few kilometers which come close to our planet. None of them is on a collision course, so we are safe.
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Why are you quite convinced that you know all object of that size? And what is your approach in finding new celestial bodies? DVK: There was a scientific study done over a few years (published in Icarus 2018, search for Granvik) where they modelled how many objects there are out there. They compared this to the observations we have with the telescopic surveys. This gives us the expected numbers shown here on our infographic: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
There are additional studies to estimate the ‘completeness’ – and we think that we know everything above roughly a few km in size.
To find new objects, we use survey telescopes that scan the night sky every night. The two major ones are Catalina and Pan-STARRS, funded by NASA. ESA is developing the so-called Flyeye telescope to add to this effort https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2017/02/Flyeye_telescope.
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Thanks for the answer, that's really interesting! It's also funny that the fist Flyeye deployed is in Sicily, at less than 100km from me, I really had no idea DVK: Indeed, that's cool. Maybe you can go and visit it one day.
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What about Interstellar objects however, like Oumuamua? DVK: The two that we have seen - 'Oumuamua and comet Borisov - were much smaller than the Saarland (or Rhode Island ;-) - not sure about Borisov, but 'Oumuamua was a few hundred meters in size. So while they could indeed come as a complete surprise, they are so rare that I wouldn't worry.
Would the public be informed if an impending asteroid event were to happen? And, how would the extinction play out? Bunch of people crushed to death, knocked off our orbit, dust clouds forever? DVK: We do not keep things secret – all our info is at the web page http://neo.ssa.esa.int. The ‘risky’ objects are in the ‘risk page’. We also put info on really close approaches there. It would also be very difficult to keep things ‘under cover’ – there are many high-quality amateur astronomers out there that would notice.
In 2029 asteroid Apophis will fly really close to Earth, even closer than geostationary satellites. Can we use some of those satellites to observe the asteroid? Is it possible to launch very cheap cube sats to flyby Apophis in 2029? DVK: Yes an Apophis mission during the flyby in 2029 would be really nice. We even had a special session on that topic at the last Planetary Defense Conference in 2019, and indeed CubeSats were mentioned. This would be a nice university project – get me a close-up of the asteroid with the Earth in the background!
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So you’re saying it was discussed and shelved? In the conference we just presented ideas. To make them happen needs funding - in the case of ESA the support of our member countries. But having something presented at a conference is the first step. One of the results of the conference was a statement to space agencies to consider embarking on such a mission. See here: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/documents/336356/336472/PDC_2019_Summary_Report_FINAL_FINAL.pdf/341b9451-0ce8-f338-5d68-714a0aada29b?t=1569333739470
Go to the section 'resolutions'. This is now a statement that scientists can use to present to their funding agencies, demonstrating that it's not just their own idea.
Thanks for doing this AMA! Did we know the Chelyabinsk meteor in 2013 (the one which had some great videos on social media) was coming? Ig not, how comes? Also, as a little side one, have there been any fatalities from impact events in the past 20 years? Unfortunately, the Chelyabinsk object was not seen in advance, because it came from the direction of the Sun where ground-based telescopes cannot look.
No known fatalities from impacts have happened in the past 20 years, although the Chelyabinsk event did cause many injuries, fortunately mostly minor.
MM
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How often do impacts from that direction happen, compared to impacts from visible trajectories? In terms of fraction of the sky, the area that cannot be easily scanned from the ground is roughly a circle with a radius of 40°-50° around the current position of the Sun, corresponding to ~15% of the total sky. However, there is a slight enhancement of objects coming from that direction, therefore the fraction of objects that may be missed when heading towards us is a bit higher.
However, this applies only when detecting an asteroid in its "final plunge" towards the Earth. Larger asteroids can be spotted many orbits earlier, when they are farther away and visible in the night side of the sky. Their orbits can then be determined and their possible impacts predicted even years or decades in advance.
MM
There must be a trade-off when targeting asteroids as they get closer to Earth, is there a rule of thumb at what the best time is to reach them, in terms of launch time versus time to reach the asteroid and then distance from Earth? DVK: Take e.g. a ‘kinetic impactor’ mission, like what DART and Hera are testing. Since we only change the velocity of the asteroid slightly, we need to hit the object early enough so that the object has time to move away from it’s collision course. Finding out when it is possible to launch requires simulations done by our mission analysis team. They take the strength of the launcher into account, also the available fuel for course corrections, and other things. Normally each asteroid has its own best scenario.
Do you also look at protecting the moon from asteroids? Would an impact of a large enough scale potentially have major impacts on the earth? DVK: There are programmes that monitor the Moon and look for flashes from impacting small asteroids (or meteoroids) - https://neliota.astro.noa.g or the Spanish MIDAS project. We use the data to improve our knowledge about these objects. These programmes just look at what is happening now.
For now we would not do anything if we predicted a lunar impact. I guess this will change once we have a lunar base in place.
Why aren't there an international organisation comprised of countries focused on the asteroid defence? Imagine like the organisation with multi-billion $ budget and program of action on funding new telescopes, asteroid exploration mission, plans for detection of potentially dangerous NEA, protocols on action after the detection - all international, with heads of states discussing these problems? DVK: There are international entities in place, mandated by the UN: The International Asteroid Warning Network (http://www.iawn.net) and the Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (http://www.smpag.net). These groups advise the United Nations. That is exactly where we come up with plans and protocols on action. But: They don’t have budget – that needs to come from elsewhere. I am expecting that if we have a real threat, we would get the budget. Right now, we don’t have a multi-billion budget.
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There is no actual risk of any sizable asteroids hitting earth in the foreseeable future. Any preparation for it would just be a waste of money. DVK: Indeed, as mentioned earlier, we do not expect a large object to hit is in the near future. We are mainly worried about those in the size range of 20 m to 40 m, which happen on average every few tens of years to hundreds of years. And where we only know a percent of them or even less.
President Obama wanted to send a crewed spacecraft to an asteroid - in your opinion is this something that should still be done in the future, would there be any usefulness in having a human being walk/float on an asteroid's surface? DVK: It would definitely be cool. I would maybe even volunteer to go. Our current missions to asteroids are all robotic, the main reason is that it is much cheaper (but still expensive) to get the same science. But humans will expand further into space, I am sure. If we want to test human exploration activities, doing this at an asteroid would be easier than landing on a planet.
this is another reply Yes, but I am slightly biased by the fact that I work at the European astronaut centre ;) There exist many similarities to what we currently do for EVA (extra vehicular activities) operations on the International Space Station versus how we would 'float' around an asteroid. Slightly biased again, but using such a mission to test exploration technologies would definitely still have value. Thanks Obama! - AC
I've heard that some asteroids contains large amounts of iron. Is there a possibility that we might have "space mines" in the far away future, if our own supply if iron runs out? Yes, this is a topic in the field known as space mining, part of what we call Space Resources. In fact, learning how we can process material we might find on asteroids or other planetary bodies is increasingly important, as it opens up the opportunities for sustainable exploration and commercialization. Its a technology we need to master, and asteroids can be a great target for testing how we can create space mines :) - AC
By how much is DART expected to deflect Didymos? Do we have any indication of the largest size of an asteroid we could potentially deflect? PM: Didymos is a binary asteroid, consisting of a main asteroid Didymos A (~700m) and a smaller asteroid Didymos B (~150m) orbiting around A with a ~12 hours period. DART is expected to impact Didymos B and change its orbital period w.r.t. Didymos A of ~1%. (8 mins)
The size of Didymos B is the most representative of a potential threat to Earth (the highest combination of probability and consequence of impacts), meaning smaller asteroids hit the Earth more often but have less severe consequences, larger asteroids can have catastrophic consequences but their probability of hitting the earth is very very low.
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Why is there less probability of larger asteroids hitting earth? DVK: There are less large objects out there. The smaller they are, the more there are.
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Is there any chance that your experiment will backfire and send the asteroid towards earth? PM: Not at all, or we would not do that :) Actually Dimorphos (the Didymos "moon") will not even leave its orbit around Didymos. It will just slightly change its speed.
I'm sure you've been asked this many times but how realistic is the plot of Armageddon? How likely is it that our fate as a species will rely on (either) Bruce Willis / deep sea oil drillers? Taking into consideration that Bruce Willis is now 65 and by the time HERA is launched he will be 69, I do not think that we can rely on him this time (although I liked the movie).
HERA will investigate what method we could use to deflect asteroid and maybe the results will show that we indeed need to call the deep sea oil drillers.
HG
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So then would it be easier to train oil drillers to become astronauts, or to train astronauts to be oil drillers? I do not know which one would be easier since I have no training/experience of deep see oil drilling nor becoming an astronaut, but as long as the ones that would go to asteroid have the sufficient skills and training (even Bruce Willis), I would be happy.
HG
If budget was no object, which asteroid would you most like to send a mission to? Nice question! For me, I'd be looking at an asteroid we know something about, since I would be interested in using it for testing how we could extract resources from it. So for me, I would choose Itokawa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25143_Itokawa), which was visited by Hayabusa spacecraft. So we already have some solid prospecting carried out for this 'roid! - AC
this is another reply Not sure if it counts as an asteroid, but Detlef and myself would probably choose ʻOumuamua, the first discovered interstellar object.
MM
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Do we even have the capability to catch up to something like that screaming through our solar system? That thing has to have a heck of a velocity to just barrel almost straight through like that. DVK: Correct, that would be a real challenge. We are preparing for a mission called 'Comet Interceptor' that is meant to fly to an interstellar object or at least a fresh comet - but it will not catch up with it, it will only perform a short flyby.
https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/ESA_s_new_mission_to_intercept_a_comet
After proving to be able to land on one, could an asteroid serve as a viable means to transport goods and or humans throughout the solar system when the orbit of said asteroid proves beneficial. While it is probably quite problematic to land the payload, it could save fuel or am I mistaken? Neat idea! Wonder if anyone has done the maths on the amount of fuel you would need/save vs certain targets. - AC
PM: To further complement, the saving is quite marginal indeed because in order to land (softly) on the asteroid you actually need to get into the very same orbit of that asteroid . At that point your orbit remains the same whether you are on the asteroid or not..
can the current anti-ballistic missiles systems intercept a terminal phase earth strike asteroid? or it is better to know beforehand and launch an impacting vehicle into space? DVK: While I do see presentations on nuclear explosions to deflect asteroids at our professional meetings, I have not seen anybody yet studying how we could use existing missile systems. So it's hard to judge whether existing missiles would do the job. But in general, it is better to know as early as possible about a possible impact and deflect it as early as possible. This will minimize the needed effort.
How much are we prepared against asteroid impacts at this moment? DVK: 42… :-) Seriously – I am not sure how to quantify ‘preparedness’. We have international working groups in place, mentioned earlier (search for IAWN, SMPAG). We have a Planetary Defence Office at ESA, a Planetary Defense Office at NASA (who spots the difference?), search the sky for asteroids, build space missions… Still we could be doing more. More telescopes to find the object, a space-based telescope to discover those that come from the direction of the Sun. Different test missions would be useful, … So there is always more we could do.
Have you got any data on the NEO coverage? Is there estimations on the percentage of NEOs we have detected and are tracking? How can we improve the coverage? How many times have asteroids been able to enter earths atmosphere without being detected beforehand? Here’s our recently updated infographics with the fraction of undiscovered NEOs for each size range: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
As expected, we are now nearly complete for the large ones, while many of the smaller ones are still unknown.
In order to improve coverage, we need both to continue the current approach, centered on ground-based telescopes, and probably also launch dedicated telescopes to space, to look at the fraction of the sky that cannot be easily observed from the ground (e.g., towards the Sun).
Regarding the last part of your question, small asteroids enter the Earth atmosphere very often (the infographics above gives you some numbers), while larger ones are much rarer.
In the recent past, the largest one to enter our atmosphere was about 20 meters in diameter, and it caused the Chelyabinsk event in 2013. It could not be detected in advance because it came from the direction of the Sun.
We have however detected a few small ones before impact. The first happened in 2008, when a ~4-meter asteroid was found to be on a collision course less than a day before impact, it was predicted to fall in Northern Sudan, and then actually observed falling precisely where (and when) expected.
MM
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DVK: And to add what MM said - Check out http://neo.ssa.esa.int. There is a ‘discovery statistics’ section which provides some of the info you asked about. NASA is providing similar information here https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/. To see the sky which is currently covered by the survey telescopes, you need to service of the Minor Planet Center which we all work together with: http://www.minorplanetcenter.org, ‘observers’, ‘sky coverage’. That is a tool we use to plan where we look with our telescopes, so it is a more technical page.
Are there any automatic systems for checking large numbers of asteroids orbits, to see if the asteroid's orbit is coming dangerously close to Earth, or is it done by people individually for every asteroid? I ask it because LSST Rubin is coming online soon and you know it will discover a lot of new asteroids. Yes, such systems exist, and monitor all known and newly discovered asteroids in order to predict possible future impacts.
The end result of the process is what we call "risk list": http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page
It is automatically updated every day once new observational data is processed.
MM
What are your favourite sci-fi series? DVK: My favorites are ‘The Expanse’, I also liked watching ‘Salvation’. For the first one I even got my family to give me a new subscription to a known internet streaming service so that I can see the latest episodes. I also loved ‘The Jetsons’ and ‘The Flintstones’ as a kid. Not sure the last one counts as sci-fi though. My long-time favorite was ‘Dark Star’.
this is another reply Big fan of The Expanse at the moment. Nice, hard sci-fi that has a good impression of being grounded in reality - AC
this is another reply When I was a kid I liked The Jetsons, when growing up Star Trek, Star wars and I also used to watch with my sister the 'V'.
HG
When determining the potential threat of a NEA, is the mass of an object a bigger factor or size? I'm asking because I'm curious if a small but massive object (say, with the density of Psyche) could survive atmospheric entry better than a comparatively larger but less massive object. The mass is indeed what really matters, since it’s directly related with the impact energy.
And as you said composition also matters, a metal object would survive atmospheric entry better, not just because it’s heavier, but also because of its internal strength.
MM
What are your thoughts on asteroid mining as portrayed in sci-fi movies? Is it feasible? If so would governments or private space programs be the first to do so?What type of minerals can be found on asteroids that would merit the costs of extraction? Certainly there is valuable stuff you can find on asteroids. For example, the likely easiest material you can harvest from an asteroid would be volatiles such as H2O. Then you have industrial metals, things like Iron, Nickel, and Platinum group metals. Going further, you can break apart many of the oxide minerals you would find to get oxygen (getting you closer to producing rocket fuel in-situ!). Its feasible, but still needs alot of testing both here on Earth and eventually needs to be tested on a target. It may be that governments, via agencies like ESA or NASA, may do it first, to prove the principles somewhat, but I know many commercial entities are also aggresively working towards space mining. To show you that its definitely possible, I'd like to plug the work of colleagues who have processed lunar regolith (which is similar to what you may find on asteroids) to extract both oxygen and metals. Check it out here: http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2019/10/Oxygen_and_metal_from_lunar_regolith
AC
Will 2020's climax be a really big rock? DVK: Let's hope not...
Considering NASA, ESA, IAU etc. is working hard to track Earth-grazing asteroids, how come the Chelyabinsk object that airburst over Russia in 2013 came as a total surprise? The Chelyabinsk object came from the direction of the Sun, where unfortunately ground-based telescopes cannot look at. Therefore, it would not have been possible to discover it in advance with current telescopes. Dedicated space telescopes are needed to detect objects coming from this direction in advance.
MM
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Is this to say that it was within specific solid angles for the entire time that we could have observed it given its size and speed? Yes, precisely that. We got unlucky in this case.
MM
Have any of you read Lucifer's Hammer by Larry Niven? In your opinion, how realistic is his depiction of an asteroid strike on Earth? DVK: I have – but really long ago, so I don’t remember the details. But I do remember that I really liked the book, and I remember I always wanted to have a Hot Fudge Sundae when reading it.
I was thinking about the asteroid threat as a teen and came up with this ideas (Hint: they are not equally serious, the level of craziness goes up real quick). Could you please comment on their feasibility? 1. Attaching a rocket engine to an asteroid to make it gradually change trajectory, do that long in advance and it will miss Earth by thousands of km 2. Transporting acid onto asteroid (which are mainly metal), attaching a dome-shaped reaction chamber to it, using heat and pressure to then carry out the chemical reaction to disintegrate asteroids 3. This one is even more terrible than a previous one and totally Dan Brown inspired — transporting antimatter on asteroid, impacting and causing annihilation. Thank you for this AMA and your time! DVK: Well the first one is not so crazy, I have seen it presented... the difficulty is that all asteroids are rotating in one way or another. So if you continuously fire the engine it would not really help. You'd need to switch the engine on and off. Very complex. And landing on an asteroid is challenging too. Just using the 'kinetic impactor' which we will test with DART/Hera (described elsewhere in this chat) is simpler. Another seriously proposed concept is to put a spacecraft next to an asteroid and use an ion engine (like we have on our Mercury mission BepiColombo) to 'push' the asteroid away.
As for 2 and 3 I think I will not live to see that happening ;-)
What is the process to determine the orbit of a newly discovered asteroid? The process is mathematically quite complex, but here's a short summary.
Everything starts with observations, in particular with measurements of the position of an asteroid in the sky, what we call "astrometry". Discovery telescopes extract this information from their discovery images, and make it available to everybody.
These datapoints are then used to calculate possible trajectories ("orbits") that pass through them. At first, with very few points, many orbits will be possible.
Using these orbits we can extrapolate where the asteroid will be located during the following nights, use a telescope to observe that part of the sky, and locate the object again.
From these new observations we can extract new "astrometry", add it to the orbit determination, and see that now only some of the possible orbits will be compatible with the new data. As a result, we now know the trajectory better than before, because a few of the possible orbits are not confirmed by the new data.
The cycle can then continue, with new predictions, new observations, and a more accurate determination of the object's orbit, until it can be determined with an extremely high level of accuracy.
MM
What are some asteroids that are on your "watchlist"? We have exactly that list on our web portal: http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page
It's called "risk list", and it includes all known asteroids for which we cannot exclude a possible impact over the next century. It is updated every day to include newly discovered asteroids, and remove those that have been excluded as possible impactors thanks to new observations.
MM
the below is a reply to the above
That's quite a list!! Do you guys ever feel stressed or afraid when you have to add another dangerous candidate (and by dangerous I mean those above 200m) is added to this Risk List? Yes, when new dangerous ones are added it's important that we immediately do our best to gather more data on them, observing them with telescopes in order to get the information we need to improve our knowledge of their orbit.
And then the satisfaction of getting the data needed to remove one from the list is even greater!
MM
What inspired you to go into this field of study? I was fascinated by astronomy in general since I was a kid, but the actual "trigger" that sparked my interest in NEOs was a wonderful summer course on asteroids organized by a local amateur astronomers association. I immediately decided that I would do my best to turn this passion into my job, and I'm so happy to have been able to make that dream come true.
MM
this is another reply DVK: I started observing meteors when I was 14, just by going outside and looking at the night sky. Since then, small bodies in the solar system were always my passion.
As a layperson, I still think using nuclear weapons against asteroids is the coolest method despite better methods generally being available. Do you still consider the nuclear option the cool option, or has your expertise in the field combined with the real-life impracticalities made it into a laughable/silly/cliche option? DVK: We indeed still study the nuclear option. There are legal aspects though, the ‘outer space treaty’ forbids nuclear explosions in space. But for a large object or one we discover very late it could be useful. That’s why we have to focus on discovering all the objects out there as early as possible – then we have time enough to use more conventional deflection methods, like the kinetic impactor (the DART/Hera scenario).
It seems like doing this well would require international cooperation, particularly with Russia. Have you ever reached out to Russia in your work? Do you have a counterpart organization there that has a similar mission? DVK: Indeed international cooperation is important - asteroids don't know about our borders! We work with a Russian team to perform follow-up observations of recently discovered NEOs. Russia is also involved in the UN-endorsed working groups that we have, IAWN and SMPAG (explained in another answer).
how much can experts tell from a video of a fireball or meteor? Can you work out what it's made of and where it came from? https://www.reddit.com/space/comments/hdf3xe/footage_of_a_meteor_at_barrow_island_australia/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x If multiple videos or pictures, taken from different locations, are available, then it's possible to reconstruct the trajectory, and extrapolate where the object came from.
Regarding the composition, it's a bit more difficult if nothing survives to the ground, but some information can be obtained indirectly from the fireball's color, or its fragmentation behavior. If a spectral analysis of the light can be made, it's then possible to infer the chemical composition in much greater detail.
MM
I've always wanted to know what the best meteorite buying site is and what their average price is?? DVK: Serious dealers will be registered with the 'International Meteorite Collectors Association (IMCA)' - https://www.imca.cc/. They should provide a 'certificate of authenticity' where it says that they are member there. If you are in doubt, you can contact the association and check. Normally there are rough prices for different meteorite types per gram. Rare meteorites will of course be much more expensive than more common ones. Check the IMCA web page to find a dealer close to you.
Just read through Aidans link to the basaltic rock being used as a printing material for lunar habitation. There is a company called Roxul that does stone woven insulation that may be able to shed some light on the research they have done to minimize their similarity to asbestos as potentially carcinogenic materials deemed safe for use in commercial and residential applications. As the interior surfaces will essentially be 3D printed lunar regolith what are the current plans to coat or dampen the affinity for the structure to essentially be death traps for respiratory illness? At least initially, many of these 3d printed regolith structures would not be facing into pressurised sections, but would rather be elements placed outside and around our pressure vessels. Such structures would be things like radiation shields, landing pads or roadways, etc. In the future, if we move towards forming hermetically sealed structures, then your point is a good one. Looking into terrestrial solutions to this problem would be a great start! - AC
What kind of career path does it take to work in the asteroid hunting field? It's probably different for each of us, but here's a short summary of my own path.
I became interested in asteroids, and near-Earth objects in particular, thanks to a wonderful summer course organized by a local amateur astronomers association. Amateur astronomers play a great role in introducing people, and young kids in particular, to these topics.
Then I took physics as my undergrad degree (in Italy), followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy in the US (Hawaii in particular, a great place for astronomers thanks to the exceptional telescopes hosted there).
After finishing the Ph.D. I started my current job at ESA's NEO Coordination Centre, which allowed me to realize my dream of working in this field.
MM
this is another reply DVK: Almost all of us have a Master's degree either in aerospace engineering, mathematics, physics/astronomy/planetary science, or computer science. Some of us - as MM - have a Ph.D. too. But that's not really a requirement. This is true for our team at ESA, but also for other teams in other countries.
What is the likelihood of an asteroid hitting the Earth In the next 200 years? It depends on the size, large ones are rare, while small ones are much more common. You can check this infographics to get the numbers for each size class: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
MM
Have you played the Earth Defence Force games and if you have, which one is your favourite? No I have not played the Earth Defence Force games, but I just looked it up and I think I would liked it. Which one would you recommend?
HG
How close is too close to earth? Space is a SUPER vast void so is 1,000,000 miles close, 10,000,000? And if an asteroid is big enough can it throw earth off its orbit? DVK: Too close for my taste is when we compute an impact probability > 0 for the object. That means the flyby distance is zero :-) Those are the objects on our risk page http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page.
If an object can alter the orbit of another one, we would call it planet. So unless we have a rogue planet coming from another solar system (verrry unlikely) we are safe from that.
How can I join you when I'm older? DVK: Somebody was asking about our career paths... Study aerospace engineering or math or physics or computer science, get a Masters. Possibly a Ph.D. Then apply for my position when I retire. Check here for how to apply at ESA: https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Careers_at_ESA/Frequently_asked_questions2#HR1
How much is too much? DVK: 42 again
Are you aware of any asteroids that are theoretically within our reach, or will be within our reach at some point, that are carrying a large quantity of shungite? If you're not aware, shungite is like a 2 billion year old like, rock stone that protects against frequencies and unwanted frequencies that may be traveling in the air. I bought a whole bunch of the stuff. Put them around the la casa. Little pyramids, stuff like that. DVK: If I remember my geology properly, Shungite forms in water sedimental deposits. This requires liquid water, i.e. a larger planet. So I don't think there is a high chance to see that on asteroids.
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